When preparing quotations for prospective customers, exporters should keep in mind that banks pay only the amount specified in the letter of credit - even if higher charges for shipping, insurance, or other factors are documented.
Upon receiving a letter of credit, the exporter should carefully compare the letter's terms with the terms of the exporter's pro forma quotation. This point is extremely important, since the terms must be precisely met or the letter of credit may be invalid and the exporter may not be paid. If meeting the terms of the letter of credit is impossible or any of the information is incorrect or misspelled, the exporter should get in touch with the customer immediately and ask for an amendment to the letter of credit to correct the problem.
The exporter must provide documentation showing that the goods were shipped by the date specified in the letter of credit or the exporter may not be paid. Exporters should check with their freight forwarders to make sure that no unusual conditions may arise that would delay shipment. Similarly, documents must be presented by the date specified for the letter of credit to be paid. Exporters should verify with their international bankers that sufficient time will be available for timely presentation.
Exporters should always request that the letter of credit specify that partial shipments and transshipment will be allowed. Doing so prevents unforeseen problems at the last minute.
A draft, sometimes also called a bill of exchange, is analogous to a foreign buyer's check. Like checks used in domestic commerce, drafts sometimes carry the risk that they will be dishonored.
A sight draft is used when the seller wishes to retain title to the shipment until it reaches its destination and is paid for. Before the cargo can be released, the original ocean bill of lading must be properly endorsed by the buyer and surrendered to the carrier, since it is a document that evidences title.
Air way-bills of lading, on the other hand, do not need to be presented in order for the buyer to claim the goods. Hence, there is a greater risk when a sight draft is being used with an air shipment.
In actual practice, the bill of lading or air way-bill is endorsed by the shipper and sent via the shipper's bank to the buyer's bank or to another intermediary along with a sight draft, invoices, and other supporting documents specified by either the buyer or the buyer's country (e.g., packing lists, consular invoices, insurance certificates). The bank notifies the buyer when it has received these documents; as soon as the amount of the draft is paid, the bank releases the bill of lading, enabling the buyer to obtain the shipment.
When a sight draft is being used to control the transfer of title of a shipment, some risk remains because the buyer's ability or willingness to pay may change between the time the goods are shipped and the time the drafts are presented for payment. Also, the policies of the importing country may change. If the buyer cannot or will not pay for and claim the goods, then returning or disposing of them becomes the problem of the exporter.
Exporters should also consider which foreign bank should negotiate the sight draft for payment. If the negotiating bank is also the buyer's bank, the bank may favor its customer's position, thereby putting the exporter at a disadvantage. Exporters should consult their international bankers to determine an appropriate strategy for negotiating drafts.
Time Drafts and Date Drafts
If the exporter wants to extend credit to the buyer, a time draft can be used to state that payment is due within a certain time after the buyer accepts the draft and receives the goods, for example, 30 days after acceptance. By signing and writing "accepted" on the draft, the buyer is formally obligated to pay within the stated time. When this is done the draft is called a trade acceptance and can be either kept by the exporter until maturity or sold to a bank at a discount for immediate payment.
A date draft differs slightly from a time draft in that it specifies a date on which payment is due, for example, December 1, XXXX, rather than a time period after the draft is accepted. When a sight draft or time draft is used, a buyer can delay payment by delaying acceptance of the draft. A date draft can prevent this delay in payment but still must be accepted.
When a bank accepts a draft, it becomes an obligation of the bank and a negotiable investment known as a banker's acceptance is created. A banker's acceptance can also be sold to a bank at a discount for immediate payment.
Many exporters of consumer and other products (generally of low value) that are sold directly to the end user accept Visa and MasterCard in payment for export sales.
International credit card transactions are typically placed by telephone or fax, methods that facilitate fraudulent transactions. Merchants should determine the validity of transactions and obtain proper authorizations.
In a foreign transaction, an open account is a convenient method of payment and may be satisfactory if the buyer is well established, has demonstrated a long and favorable payment record, or has been thoroughly checked for creditworthiness. Under open account, the exporter simply bills the customer, who is expected to pay under agreed terms at a future date. Some of the largest firms abroad make purchases only on open account.
Open account sales do pose risks, however. The absence of documents and banking channels may make legal enforcement of claims difficult to pursue. The exporter may have to pursue collection abroad, which can be difficult and costly. Also, receivables may be harder to finance, since drafts or other evidence of indebtedness are unavailable.
Before issuing a pro forma invoice to a buyer, exporters contemplating a sale on open account terms should thoroughly examine the political, economic, and commercial risks and consult with their bankers if financing will be needed for the transaction.